Answered By: Regan Brumagen
Last Updated: Mar 04, 2017     Views: 72

Thank you for your inquiry. I spoke with our Resident Advisor at the The Studio, about your question. He explained how the hot glass needs to be in excess of 2000 degrees Fahrenheit in order to be "workable". When organic materials are added to this hot glass, they become carbon because of the heat. He mentioned flame working or lamp working as a possible method for including fragile items. Because the heat can be concentrated on the glass and kept away from the organic material, it is possible to seal the item inside of an evacuated cavity in the glass. We also discussed Donald Lipski (example of his work here and the process he uses to encapsulate organic materials in glass. He uses lab glass and Pyrex pipe fittings to hold a solution which prevents decay of the organic inner material. Ultimately, the organic matter is suspended in the solution contained in the glass, not in glass itself. This method does not involve glass working. I would be glad to give you more information about that process, if you are interested please let me know. I am attaching two bibliographies on inclusions. The titles may be helpful in your research. If you take the list to a local library, they should be able to help you get some of the titles using Inter-library Loan. We do have the materials in house and would be happy to let you use them in house.

As far as leads for speaking with people when you are here, you can contact our curatorial department through their online form ( As our Library focuses on the art and history of glass and glassmaking, it is beyond our scope to answer technical questions in detail. If you think you will want more technical materials for your research, you may wish to contact The Scholes Library at Alfred University, New York State College of Ceramics. They have a substantial collection of technical information about glass. Their reference desk number is: (607) 871-2951. Alfred’s library catalog is available for searching on the web:

I hope you find this information helpful. If you notify the library prior to your visit, we will pull certain items for you and have research materials more readily available. Please let me know if you have any further questions or if you have any problems opening either of the attachments. Attachment(s) included: Kilnworking - Inclusions.doc, Inclusions.doc

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