Last Updated: Aug 23, 2018     Views: 124

5 Obsidian Tools (73.1.12)
Image: Five Obsidian Tools. CMoG 73.1.12.

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Glass in Nature

According to our Assistant Curator of Ancient and Islamic Glass, the oldest objects in the collection are those displayed in the Glass in Nature area at the Museum. Glass in nature includes obsidian, desert glass, and fulgurites ("petrified lightning"), among others. Much of this material was made by geologic processes tens of thousands, perhaps millions, of years ago. You can read more in this brief article, "Glass in Nature," in All About Glass on the Museum's website.

The Museum also has obsidian blades that were chiseled from raw obsidian by Neolithic people between 5,000-10,000 years ago (see image.)

Human-Made Objects

As for human-made glass, pieces that date before 1500 BC are very rare. We have some pieces (mostly beads) that could be that old but are not necessarily that old. This is true for a lot of our early glass – we know it was made in the Late Bronze Age (about 1500-1200 BC), but not when in the Late Bronze Age, because some styles didn’t change very much for those 300 years.

The portrait head of Amenhotep II (79.1.4), probably made when he was pharaoh from 1426-1400 BC, is the earliest piece for which we have a clear date. Other candidates for earliest piece on view are the two pieces from the Near East in the upper left of the Origins of Glassmaking case – Disk Pendant with Star Pattern (63.1.26) and Pendant with Nude Female (55.1.64).

As for the oldest piece of man-made glass anywhere, there are a couple of beads and other small pieces of glass that have been found in archaeological contexts of the 3rd millennium BC (4,000-5,000 years ago, or 3000-2000 BC). The best known piece of really old glass in a museum is in the British Museum. It is a piece of blue raw glass found at the site of Eridu in modern Iraq. It dates before 2,050 BC, or more than 4,000 years ago. There’s a bit more information, and a photo, on the British Museum website.

Online Resources

Listen to Dr. David Whitehouse discuss the portrait head of Amenhotep II to learn more about it:

Also read The Corning Museum of Glass blog post, "Akhenaten and Amenhotep: Two Egyptian kings on display at CMoG" (March 21, 2013).

Additional Resources

For more in-depth research, you might be interested in the following:

Younger researchers might be interested in the following:

Borrowing Library Materials

If you wish to borrow copies of library items, please contact your local library. The Rakow Research Library will lend designated books from its collection and will send copies of articles requested by other libraries. Your library can request items through the OCLC WorldShare Interlibrary Loan (ILL) system or by direct request through email at For more information, please see our ILL policies and procedures.

Feel free to contact us any time you have a glass-related question!




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